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(Summary by Robert Higgins for University of Florida, Zoology 6027, Spring 1982)

Beware: Scanned document.

I. Historical account

II. Definition of the phylum

III. General body features

IV. Internal features

                                            and armed with oral styles.

                                        2. Pharynx: lined with cuticle and surrounded by muscle.

                                        3. Esophagus with two pairs of salivary glands, and two
                                            pancreatic glands.

                                        4. Stomach-intestine: nonciliated columnar epithelium.

                                        5. Hindgut and terminal anus. Sphincter before hindgut and anus.

V. Reproduction and embryology

VI. Ecology and physiology

VII. Classification

The classification uses the property to retract the head into the neck or into the first trunk segments. The neck has 6, 8, or 16 plates that close over the head.

IX. References

Page maintained by Wesley R. Elsberry.

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